By the President of the United States of America
Colonel Charles Young was the highest-ranking African-American commander in the United States Army from 1894 until his death in 1922. He also served as the first African-American National Park Superintendent, overseeing Sequoia and General Grant National Parks ( now Kings Canyon). , commanding a detachment of Buffalo Soldiers in the years leading up to the creation of the National Park Service.
Young served nearly his entire military career in the all-black 9th and 10th Calvary Regiments, often nicknamed the "Buffalo Soldiers". Young, appointed second lieutenant in 1889, in 1917 reached the rank of colonel. During his career, he served on the western frontier, saw action in the Philippines, and in 1916 rode with General John "Black Jack" Pershing into Mexico. first African-American to serve as a United States military attache, first in Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and later in Liberia. Young's varied military career included a position at Wilberforce University as a professor of tactics and military science.
Born in Kentucky in 1864 to slave parents, Young's parents, Gabriel and Arminta Young, moved to Ripley, Ohio, in 1866 with their two-year-old son, Charles, to improve their prospects after the Civil War. This town on the Ohio River was a center of abolitionism, known as a friendly place on the Underground Railroad in pre-war years. Young prospered there, and in 1881, at age 17, he graduated with honors as a member of his high school integration class. His mother encouraged him to pursue his intellectual and musical pursuits throughout his life. Young grew up proud of his father's military service as a Union soldier during the American Civil War and followed his father's advice by entering the United States Military Academy at West Point. In 1889, Young was the third African American to graduate from West Point and the last African American to graduate from West Point until 1936.
Young consolidated his career from 1889 to 1907, serving with the 9th Cavalry in Western posts as a second lieutenant in Nebraska and Utah before accepting a military position at Wilberforce University, where he was promoted to first lieutenant. During the Spanish–American War, he was drafted into the Volunteers as a Major and took command of the 9th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Battalion. Although the unit was never deployed or saw action, it gained a reputation for discipline and efficiency. After the war, he returned to his regiment and was promoted to captain in 1901. He fought with the regiment in the Philippine Islands and returned with the 9th Cavalry to California, where his unit was selected as an honor guard for visiting President Theodore. Roosevelt - the first time African-American soldiers served in that role. Assigned to the Presidio, Young and his regiment of Buffalo Soldiers were sent to Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, where Young served as Interim Superintendent and earned the respect not only of the African-American troops he commanded, but also of the white construction crews. which he commanded. led. His accomplishments caught the attention of President Theodore Roosevelt. Captain Young was appointed military attache to Hispaniola in 1904 - the first appointment for an African American - before joining the 9th Cavalry in the Philippines, Wyoming and Texas from 1908 to 1911.
In 1894, when Young accepted a position at Wilberforce University, he returned to Ohio and, with his widowed mother, purchased a large house and adjoining farm, which he named "Youngsholm". While a professor at Wilberforce University, Young formed lifelong friendships with poet Paul Laurence Dunbar and philosopher W.E.B. Dubois. Youngsholm served as a meeting place for elite African American thinkers, artists, and leaders. Young opened its doors to young hopefuls and welcomed the extended family that worked there, even during his many military posts. Though Young's career has taken him far and wide, Wilberforce, Ohio—where he built a home, raised a family, mentored the next generation of leaders, and found an intellectual haven—remained his base of operations.
From 1912 to 1916, Young served as a military attache in Liberia, helping to train the Liberian Frontier Force, and then served as a squadron commander during the punitive expedition into Mexico against Pancho Villa. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Agua Caliente, leading his men to assist an ambushed cavalry unit. During the same period, Young earned further promotions, to major in 1912 and lieutenant colonel in 1916. The 1916 board of examiners for his promotion to lieutenant colonel confirmed Young's previous illness (malaria contracted while in Liberia), but concluded that he is fit for service.
On the eve of World War I, Young was the highest-ranking African-American officer in the United States Army. As the United States prepared its forces for Europe, Young and his supporters expected him to continue to excel and contribute to the war effort. Subsequent examining boards recommended Young for promotion but also noted medical concerns about his fitness for duty. In June 1917 Young was selected for promotion to the rank of colonel; however, his physical examination revealed that he suffered from nephritis (a condition first diagnosed in 1901), high blood pressure, and an enlarged heart. Around the same time, several Southern senators pressured President Woodrow Wilson and his secretary of war to take action to reassign or bar white officers from serving under Young. Indeed, when the United States entered World War I, the War Department generally prevented African Americans from assuming leadership of African American regiments sent to France and largely restricted African American troops to noncombatant roles.
In July 1917, Young retired due to illness and was promoted to colonel in recognition of his distinguished military service. Young was disappointed, and he and his supporters asked for a new trial. To demonstrate his fitness for duty, Young - who was 54 at the time - made the historic 500-mile ride from Wilberforce, Ohio, to Washington, DC. The Secretary of War then informally questioned Young, but did not reverse his decision. The War Department's actions on the matter were controversial, especially in the African-American community, at a time of considerable racial tension. Young continued to protest his retirement and worked for civil rights for all African-American soldiers.
However, Young's career was not over. Although retired from the medical service, he was retained on the active duty officer roster. During World War I, the War Department sent him back to Ohio to help assemble and train African American soldiers recruited for the war. A few days before the armistice in November 1918, Young was assigned to Camp Grant in Rockford, Illinois for several months to train African American soldiers for non-combat duties. Shortly thereafter, at the request of the State Department, Colonel Young was again sent as a military attaché to Liberia, arriving in Monrovia in February 1920. While in neighboring Nigeria, he died on 8 January at the British Hospital in Lagos, 1922 In 1923, Colonel Charles Young was only the fourth soldier to be honored with a funeral service at the Arlington Amphitheater before interment at Arlington Cemetery.
Colonel Charles Young's story and leadership are also emblematic of Buffalo soldiers' experiences in difficult and racially tense times. The Buffalo Soldiers' story of bravery and service is not fully told in any existing national park. In 1866 Congress created six all-black regiments, later consolidated into four, to help rebuild the country after the Civil War and to patrol the remote western frontier during the "Indian Wars". Although the pay was low at the time - just $13 a month - many African Americans joined because they could earn more and be treated with more dignity than normal civilian life. According to legend, the American Indians called the black cavalry troops "buffalo soldiers" because of their dark, curly hair that resembled buffalo skin. Aware of the buffalo's ferocious courage and fighting spirit, African American troops adopted this name with pride and honor.
Buffalo soldiers fought alongside white regiments in many conflicts and played a key role in the exploration and colonization of the western lands. They were also an important part of the early history of American national parks. Before Congress created the National Park Service in 1916, the US Army played a key role in administering many parks. The Army sent troops from Buffalo stationed at the Presidio to manage Yosemite, General Grant, and Sequoia National Parks in California. Buffalo soldiers cleared the park's first trails, built roads, mapped, drove out invading cattle, put out fires, monitored tourists, and kept poachers and loggers at bay.
WhileMon. 2 of the Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225, 16 U.S.C. 431) (the "Antiquities Act") authorizes the President, at his discretion, to advertise by public notice historic and prehistoric monuments, structures, and other objects of importance historical or scientific sites located on lands owned or controlled by the government of the United States as national monuments, and to claim as part of them portions of land, the boundaries of which shall, in all cases, be limited to the smallest area conducive to proper care and development of protected resources;
WhileThe National Park Foundation and the Trust for Public Lands, with the assistance and cooperation of the Friendship Foundation, the Omega Psi Phi fraternity and Central State University, abandoned the existing remnant of the Youngsholm property, consisting of Colonel Young's home and surrounding farmland. , to the United States for the establishment of this monument;
Whileit is in the public interest to preserve and protect the historical and scientific objects associated with Charles Young and the Buffalo troops at Youngsholm in Wilberforce, Ohio;
Now, this is why I, Barack Obama,The President of the United States of America, by the authority conferred upon me by section 2 of the Antiquities Act, proclaims, designates and reserves as a Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument (monument) the facilities identified above and all lands and interests in lands belonging to or controlled by the United States Government within the boundaries defined on the attached map, which is attached to and forms part of this proclamation, to protect such facilities. These Federal Reserve Lands and Land Interests comprise 59.65 acres, which is the smallest area to properly care for and manage the facilities to be protected.
All federal lands and land interests within the boundaries of the monument are appropriated and removed from all forms of listing, location, selection, sale, lease or other disposition in accordance with public land laws, including removal of location, listing and patent by law and to dispose of pursuant to all regulations relating to the leasing of minerals and geothermal energy.
The implantation of the monument is governed by the applicable legislation in force. Land and land interests within the boundaries of the monument that are not owned or controlled by the United States will be claimed as part of the monument upon acquisition of ownership or control by the United States.
The Secretariat of the Interior (Secretariat) manages the monument through the National Park Service, in accordance with the applicable legal authorities, in accordance with the objectives of this ordinance.
The secretariat will develop a development plan for the monument, with full public involvement, within 3 years of the announcement date. The management plan ensures that the monument meets the following objectives for the benefit of current and future generations: (1) preserve and protect the aforementioned objects of historical and scientific importance, (2) commemorate the life and achievements of Colonel Karol Young, and (3) interpret the struggles and achievements of Buffalo soldiers in their service in the United States. The management plan outlines steps to be taken to provide roleplaying opportunities for Colonel Young and the Buffalo Troopers, both at the memorial and elsewhere, as appropriate. The management plan should also outline the monument's desired relationship with other resources, programs, and organizations related to Colonel Charles Young's life, such as the U.S. Army, Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, and Wilberforce University, as well as other sites important to the Buffalo Soldiers. .
The National Park Service will make appropriate use of existing authorities to engage Central State University, Wilberforce University, Omega Psi Phi, the Ohio Historical Society, and other organizations and individuals to provide more interpretation and education opportunities consistent with the monuments' goals. The National Park Service works with the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which manages the San Francisco Presidio, and Sequoia, Kings Canyon, and Yosemite National Parks to commemorate the historic ties between Colonel Charles Young and his military assignments in these locations, and the role of the Buffalo Troopers as pioneering stewards of our national parks. The National Park Service will use available authorities as necessary to contract with other organizations to provide interpretation and education at additional locations with a historical association or affiliation with the Buffalo Soldiers.
Nothing in this proclamation shall supersede any existing withdrawal, reservation or appropriation; however, the monument will be the dominant reserve.
All unauthorized persons are warned not to appropriate, damage, destroy or remove any elements of the monument or settle or settle in any of its land.
as proof of whatI hereby sign this twenty-fifth of March in the year of our Lord two thousand and thirteen, in the year two hundred and thirty-seven of the Independence of the United States of America.
NOTE: This proclamation was published inFederal Register28 mark .
Barack Obama, Proclamation 8945 - Establishing the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/303662
Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument, encompassing Young's home and adjoining farmland, was established by Presidential Proclamation 8945 on March 25th, 2013. The national monument became the 401st unit of the National Park System.What key role did the Buffalo Soldiers play in the early history of the National Park Service? ›
The Buffalo Soldiers served as some of the first national park rangers when the U.S. Army served as the official administrator of Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks between 1891 and 1913. They protected the parks from illegal grazing, poachers, timber thieves and wildfires.Why were the Buffalo Soldiers important to New Mexico? ›
Legend states the black cavalrymen were dubbed "Buffalo Soldiers" by their Native American adversary because of their toughness, dark skin and hair texture. Nearly 4,000 Buffalo Soldiers served at 11 posts in New Mexico, protecting travelers to California and valuable trade routes along the Rio Grande.What is the history Colorado Buffalo Soldiers? ›
The so-called Buffalo Soldiers were African American troops that were sent to the American West during the late 1800s. It is thought that the Native Americans gave the Buffalo Soldiers their nickname. In Colorado, Buffalo Soldiers were posted at forts, and were a part of many battles.What was the name of Colonel Charles Young's horse? ›
Steadily, he did his duty. Young was medically retired in 1917for high blood pressure and Bright's disease – incurred during his service in Africa. To prove he was fit at age 53, Young rode his horse 'dolly' fro his home in Wilberforce, OH to Washington DC.Why were the black soldiers called Buffalo Soldiers? ›
American Plains Indians who fought against these soldiers referred to the black cavalry troops as "buffalo soldiers" because of their dark, curly hair, which resembled a buffalo's coat and because of their fierce nature of fighting.How many Buffalo Soldiers are still alive? ›
Major James Williams is now the last living member of a United States Buffalo Soldier Army unit. Who were the Buffalo Soldiers?What was the main goal of the Buffalo Soldiers? ›
In 1866, six all-Black cavalry and infantry regiments were created after Congress passed the Army Organization Act. Their main tasks were to help control the Native Americans of the Plains, capture cattle rustlers and thieves and protect settlers, stagecoaches, wagon trains and railroad crews along the Western front.What is the importance of the buffalo U.S. history? ›
"Critical to their survival, bison not only provided American Indians with food, shelter and tools, but a model on how to live. To American Indians, bison also represent their spirit and remind them of how their lives were once lived, free and in harmony with nature.Did the local settlers respect the Buffalo Soldiers Why or why not? ›
The Indians greatly respected and didn't like to tangle with the African-American cavalrymen, calling them "Buffalo Soldiers" for their toughness and fighting prowess. The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments gained fame for their exploits both on the plains and in the Southwest during the 1870s, 1880s and early 1890s.
They were not involved in the infamous Sand Creek Massacre, but they did participate in the following expeditions against the Ute, Cheyenne, and Arapaho peoples in Southern Colorado.What were the Buffalo Soldiers fighting for? ›
The African American soldiers known as the "Buffalo Soldiers" were fighting to obtain a freedom they had never known, while the Apaches were fighting to hold on to a freedom they had always had.What horse was buried with full military honors? ›
"Black Jack" Pershing, he was the riderless horse in more than 1,000 Armed Forces Full Honors Funerals (AFFHF), the majority of which were in Arlington National Cemetery.Who was the old soldier who wouldn't surrender? ›
Hiroo Onoda (Japanese: 小野田 寛郎, Hepburn: Onoda Hiroo, 19 March 1922 – 16 January 2014) was an Imperial Japanese Army intelligence officer who fought in World War II and did not surrender at the war's end in August 1945.Who was the first black colonel in the United States? ›
Charles Young was born into slavery in a two-room log cabin in Mays Lick, Ky., on March 12, 1864. His father Gabriel later fled to freedom and in 1865 enlisted as a private in the 5th Regiment, U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery.Who was the most famous Buffalo Soldier? ›
A leader among the legendary "Buffalo Soldiers", Charles Young (1864-1922) served in the segregated U-S Army of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Young was one of few black military officers. These African Americans served in an era when racism was rampant and many ... if not most ...What was the motto of the Buffalo Soldiers? ›
The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments operated under mottos that were as succinct as they were impactful: “We Can, We Will” (9th) and “Ready and Forward” (10th).Who was the oldest surviving Buffalo Soldier? ›
The regiments were racially segregated, as the U.S. military would not desegregate until 1948. On September 6, 2005, Mark Matthews, the oldest surviving Buffalo Soldier, died aged 111. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.Were there female Buffalo Soldiers? ›
Williams is also the only known female Buffalo Soldier. Williams' determination to serve her country demonstrates the extraordinary feats women have accomplished simply trying to live their lives.Did Buffalo Soldiers get paid? ›
On the way, many received education for the very first time in their lives. They enlisted for five years at a time and privates were paid $13 dollars per month. Each soldier was given a bunk in a barracks, three meals a day, uniforms and medical care. Those who enlisted in the cavalry were also issued a horse.
However, one of the first battles they would encounter was one of racial discrimination and pay equity within the United States Armed Forces. To protest being paid $10 per month compared to white soldiers' $13 per month salaries, African-American recruits refused to accept their pay for more than a year (1863-1864).When did the last Buffalo Soldier died? ›
|Died||September 6, 2005 (aged 111 years, 30 days) Washington, D.C.|
|Place of burial||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
Lidia learns the about the history of the Buffalo soldiers, and their role in the 1800s, making the West safe for settlement. In the 1800's, these soldiers often ate beans, bacon, hard bread, potatoes, onions and stews which were staples in their kitchens.What war would the Buffalo Soldiers have won for America? ›
These black soldiers helped protect the nation's westward expansion by building roads and participating in significant military actions, such as the Red River War (1874-1875) and the Battle of San Juan Hill during the Spanish American War (1898).Why did the U.S. Army want to destroy the buffalo? ›
American military commanders ordered troops to kill buffalo to deny Native Americans an important source of food. In 1905, zoologist William Hornaday formed the American Bison Society to re-create more wild herds.Are there Buffalo Soldiers today? ›
Buffalo Soldiers Day timeline
All units of the buffalo soldiers are officially deactivated, and members are integrated with White units at the end of segregation in the military. Executive Order 9981, issued by President Truman, officially ends racial segregation in the United States Armed Forces.
Henry Johnson (June 11, 1850 – January 31, 1904) was a Buffalo Soldier in the United States Army and a recipient of America's highest military decoration – the Medal of Honor – for his actions in the Indian Wars of the western United States.What do buffalo symbolize? ›
The American buffalo or bison is a symbol of abundance and manifestation, and the lesson learned by the Lakota that day is that one does not have to struggle to survive if the right action is joined by the right prayer. The birth of a sacred white buffalo is a sign of hope and an indication of good times to come.How did the buffalo impact the Native Americans? ›
The bison provided them with meat for food, hides for clothing and shelter, and horns and bones for tools. They would even use the bladder to hold water. For the Plains Indians, bison equaled survival. The Plains Indians believed they shared the Earth with their animal relatives, especially the bison.What did the Native Americans think of the buffalo? ›
A Way of Life
To these people, the buffalo was the ultimate companion, providing food, clothing, shelter, and nearly every other material need. As the Indians depended so much on the bison for their existence, their very religions centered on the buffalo.
Not only did the European settlers of the new world view the survival of buffalo as a means of perpetuating the ways of Native American life, they saw the buffalo as being incompatible with their dream of a Great Plains cattle culture.Were the Buffalo Soldiers former slaves? ›
Many of them had been former slaves in the South, and they were now wearing the uniform of the U.S. Army. These regiments had by far the lowest desertion rates in the army during the 1870s and 1880s. No one knows for sure how the "Buffalo Soldier" nickname originated.Why was the buffalo chosen for respect? ›
The Buffalo - Bashkode-Bizhiki - represents respect because for as long as we have been here, the Buffalo has sustained our lives through clothing, food and shelter. The Buffalo is a tool of life to live harmoniously with a sense of balance. The Buffalo shows us the importance of respecting ourselves and others.Did the Buffalo Soldiers fight the Comanche? ›
This image is of the "Buffalo Soldiers" at Fort Keogh, Missouri, 25th Infantry. These infantrymen escorted western migrants, protected mail and stage routes, and fought in attacks on the Apaches, Kiowas, Cheyennes, and Comanches.How many Buffalo Soldiers received the Medal of Honor? ›
During the almost 90 years that the Buffalo Soldiers served in segregated US Army units 30 Buffalo Soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor. They received the medal for actions in the Plains Wars through the Korean War.Were Buffalo Soldiers at Wounded Knee? ›
Tension between the two groups, which included the buffalo soldiers of the Ninth Cavalry, resulted in the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 28. More than 150 Sioux were killed.What are 2 facts about Buffalo Soldiers? ›
The Buffalo Soldiers served as some of the first national park rangers when the U.S. Army served as the official administrator of Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks between 1891 and 1913. They protected the parks from illegal grazing, poachers, timber thieves and wildfires.What weapons did the Buffalo Soldiers use? ›
A Buffalo Soldier was armed with a 45-70 Springfield carbine (rifle), a Colt Army . 45, (1873 model) caliber pistol and a saber.Where are the Buffalo Soldiers buried? ›
The San Francisco National Cemetery is the final resting place for over 450 African American soldiers known as the Buffalo Soldiers. Most are buried in the West Section of the cemetery which was being filled during and shortly after the Spanish American War. Among them is Medal of Honor recipient, William H. Thompkins.Who was the most notorious War Horse? ›
The destrier is the best-known war horse of the Middle Ages. It carried knights in battles, tournaments, and jousts. It was described by contemporary sources as the Great Horse, due to its significance.
|Died||October 4, 1989 (aged 19) Paris, Kentucky, U.S.|
|Breeder||Meadow Stud (Christopher Chenery)|
On the morning of April 6th, Burrow's Battery, the 14th Ohio Light Artillery, lost seventy horses to Confederate fire within a short period and were forced to abandon all their cannons. After the battle, it was common to burn the dead horses and mules in order to clean up the battlefield as was done at Shiloh.Who was the bravest soldier? ›
Audie Leon Murphy (20 June 1925 – 28 May 1971) was an American soldier, actor, and songwriter. He was one of the most decorated American combat soldiers of World War II. He received every military combat award for valor available from the United States Army, as well as French and Belgian awards for heroism.Who was the last soldier to surrender? ›
The last Japanese soldier to formally surrender after the country's defeat in World War Two was Hiroo Onoda.Who was the American soldier who refused to shoot? ›
Desmond Doss joined the Army as a combat medic because he believed in the cause of World War II. But as a Seventh-day Adventist, he had also vowed not to kill.Who was the first black 4 star general in the U.S. Army? ›
Answer: A. General Daniel “Chappie” James, Jr. General James was an American fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force, who in 1975 became the first Black to reach the rank of four-star general in the armed forces. He attended the famous Tuskegee Institute and trained Black pilots during World War II.Who was a black famous general? ›
Daniel “Chappie” James Jr. Air Force Gen. Daniel “Chappie” James Jr. became the first Black American general in his service and was later the first Black man to become a four-star general in any U.S. military service branch.Who is the black general of the U.S. Army? ›
General Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. was the First African American general officer in the Active-Duty Army in the U.S. Army.What role did the Buffalo Soldiers play in ww2? ›
Known as “buffalo soldiers” in reference to 19th-century African American cavalrymen, the 92nd Infantry Division was a segregated unit that served in both world wars. During the Italian Campaign of World War II, elements of the 92nd Division were among the handful of African American units to serve in combat.What role did Buffalo Soldiers play in the Indian Territory quizlet? ›
What role did Buffalo Soldiers play in the Indian Territory? A. They fought many Civil War battles in the area.
Their main job was to support the westward expansion of the United States. Buffalo Soldiers built roads, telegraph lines and forts. One group worked as some of the first park rangers in national parks.What role did the Buffalo Soldiers play in the Spanish American War? ›
During the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars, Buffalo Soldier units served both in Cuba and in the Philippines. In Cuba, the 10th Cavalry participated in the famous Battle of San Juan Hill, alongside Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders; five members earned the Medal of Honor for their heroism.Why are the Buffalo Soldiers important in American history? ›
These black soldiers helped protect the nation's westward expansion by building roads and participating in significant military actions, such as the Red River War (1874-1875) and the Battle of San Juan Hill during the Spanish American War (1898). The brave men also served among the first national park rangers.What are three important things the Indians did with the buffalo? ›
The Plains Indians had more than 150 different uses for the various bison parts. The bison provided them with meat for food, hides for clothing and shelter, and horns and bones for tools. They would even use the bladder to hold water.How did the Buffalo Soldiers help with the national park system? ›
Their duties included confiscating firearms as well as curbing poaching of the park's wildlife, suppressing wildfires, ending illegal grazing of livestock on federal lands, and stopping thefts of timber and other natural objects. They oversaw the construction of roads, trails, and other infrastructure.Are there still Buffalo Soldiers today? ›
All units of the buffalo soldiers are officially deactivated, and members are integrated with White units at the end of segregation in the military.Why did the Buffalo Soldiers earn respect from both Native Americans and the US government? ›
“Native populations and African American soldiers gained respect for one another in the sense that they recognized they were all fighting to be free,” said Edna Wagner, executive director of the Richard Allen Cultural Center and Museum near Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. “The name Buffalo Soldiers is a sign of respect.Who was the most famous buffalo soldier? ›
A leader among the legendary "Buffalo Soldiers", Charles Young (1864-1922) served in the segregated U-S Army of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Young was one of few black military officers. These African Americans served in an era when racism was rampant and many ... if not most ...What were the contributions of the Rough Riders and the Buffalo Soldiers? ›
Rough Riders and Buffalo soldiers from the 9th Calvary were the first to reach the Kettle Hill summit—taking heavy Spanish fire during their ascent and engaging in hand-to-hand combat in the trenches.